• Security and defence is one of the areas in which the EU has advanced most in recent years. Europe has come a long way since the disappointments and frustration in the 1990s, when, in light of the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia, analysts argued that the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the EU was ‘neither common, nor foreign, nor dealing with security, nor [could] be called a policy.’ Since then the newly developed Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) has become the necessary framework for the formulation and implementation of effective European security policy.


  • This class will critically examine two periods in European history when minority protection became an explicit strategy for achieving and maintaining the stability of the continent. After World War I, the victorious Allied Powers redrew the political boundaries of Eastern Europe’s multi-national empires and forever altered the fate of its people. To prevent ethnic retributions in the wake of this political settlement, the Allied Powers set up a system of minority protection under the League of Nations. In the end, the League failed to prevent the persecution of minorities in Poland, Hungary, Albania, and Romania in the 1920s and 1930s. Issues of ethnic conflict and minority protection reemerged in the 1990s as the European Union prepared to open its doors to ten countries in East Central Europe. Now, the EU is looking south to the Balkans and east to CIS countries, which is home to most of the region's current conflicts. To ensure the stability of the region and prevent a tidal wave of migrants in the wake of EU enlargement, West European governments have worked closely with NATO, the EU, the UN, the Council of Europe, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to ameliorate ethnic tension in the region. This course examines the relative success of these interventions in the belief that identifying the impact of these historic experiments will help policy makers avoid past mistakes in a future Europe as well as other regions of the world.